If you follow any of the tennis Grand Slam tournaments, you will notice the game being played on several types of surfaces. The U.S. and Australian Open are played on hard courts, while the French Open is played on clay. Uniquely, Wimbledon is played on a grass court. These court surfaces have various advantages and disadvantages with regards to match play and maintenance.
Clay Courts Clay courts are more commonly seen in Europe and South America. There are a variety of clay tennis courts with the color of the court as an indication of the type of clay used. Red clay courts typically consist of crushed brick and shale, green tennis courts consist of crushed basalt, and blue clay courts are crushed brick. Gray tennis courts are made from natural clay from the ground. Clay courts effect how the ball spins and is returned. Clay tennis courts favor players who can play defense. Players preserve more energy playing on a clay court since they can slide into their shots instead of coming to a complete stop. The bounce of a tennis ball is also higher and slower than that of a hard tennis court. Clay courts take away many of the advantages of a big serve, making it harder for serve-based players to dominate on the surface.
While initially cheaper to build, clay tennis courts require a lot of careful management. They may need lines painted more frequently and rolled more often than hard courts. Water management is also a factor since too much water on the tennis court will cause damage.
Grass Courts Grass tennis courts are seen infrequently due to the hefty maintenance required of frequent watering and mowing. They also take a long time to dry after rain, but overall the grass surface is much more physically forgiving to the human body than hard courts.
Grass tennis courts are the fastest type of courts. Consisting of grass grown on hard-packed soil, a grass tennis court provides many variables depending on how recently it has been mowed, the health of the grass, and how recently others have played on the court. All of these factors will affect the bounce of the ball. Bounces tend to be fast and low, rallies are short, and the serve plays a bigger role than on other surfaces. Serve and volley players tend to have the greatest advantage on a grass court.
Hard Courts Hard tennis courts are the most commonly constructed tennis courts for public and private use in North America. Hard concrete courts are durable and hold up well to the elements. They dry much faster than clay courts after rain. Hard courts are composed of rigid materials such as concrete or asphalt and then topped with an acrylic or synthetic layer to seal it.
Tennis players who play well all around will have the advantage on a hard concrete court. Play on a hard court is generally faster because there is little energy absorption by the court. Players can apply many types of spins during play and the ball tends to bounce high. The speed of rebound is determined by how much sand is in the synthetic or acrylic layer on top of the hard foundation. More sand results in a slower bounce since there is more friction. Less sand makes for faster plays and more topspin. Hard courts are generally considered a good option for all types of players and is even designated a “Democratic Court” by the International Tennis Foundation.